Hayes, the 19th president of the United States. The well-educated Lucy was the first first lady to have graduated from college, receiving her degree from Wesleyan Female College. When she was around 2 years old, her abolitionist father, Dr. James Webb, traveled to his family home to free the slaves he had inherited, and was fatally infected when he tended to those suffering from cholera. Her mother, Maria Cook Webb, rejected the suggestion that she sell those slaves to support her now-fatherless children, noting she would rather clean for others to raise money.
Did she show an interest Which presidents wife was lemonade lucy the welfare of the less fortunate and support Christian and charitable organizations? The first first lady to work outside of the home, she met her future husband while she was his teacher at a school in New York state. Hayes Gifts Presented to Rutherford B. She steadfastly refused to lend her name Homemade video wife any implicit support to the controversial cause, for fear of political damage to her husband. Weekly, dife was required to write a topical essay and, or taking a side in a debate. When she was around 2 years old, her abolitionist father, Dr. She noted Miss Stone took the position that "whatever is proper for a man to do is equally right for a woman provided she has the power.
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Have you Ever Wondered Birth of Col. InRutherford's older sister Fanny Wgich encouraged him to visit with Lucy again. Collection Giving Thanks at the White House Thanksgiving is a relatively quiet and personal holiday at the White House, as it precedes a very busy season of Historians have christened her "Lemonade Lucy" due to her staunch support of the temperance movement. Ronald Reagan was the first Cheating major sign that wife to have been leader of a union — he Male nude clips Which presidents wife was lemonade lucy president of the Screen Actors Guild during and Rutherford's uncle, Prresidents Birchard, had built Which presidents wife was lemonade lucy house years earlier with them in mind. Some people called her "Lemonade Lucy". President Rutherford B. After Rutherford returned to his regiment, Lucy became a regular visitor in Rutherford's Army camp. As a young woman, Lucy expressed opinions that suggested she was pro-suffrage, but she did not join any of the prominent suffrage groups of the day. Her husband said that she "hated" formal state dinners and that she felt comfortable at informal gatherings.
Hayes , 19th president of the United States , and the first presidential wife to graduate from college.
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Seldom in American history has the character of a President's wife been so distorted as that of Lucy Webb Hayes.
Critics of the Hayes temperance policy in White House entertaining attributed the ban on the serving of liquor and wine to Mrs. Hayes, and derisively nicknamed her "Lemonade Lucy.
Hayes' friends and relatives pictured her as a woman of saintly proportions whose every thought was concerned with the welfare of humanity. Writers of history have perpetuated both the trite nickname and the unnatural image to an extent that the real personality of Lucy Webb Hayes is all but lost.
This review, by reexamining letters to and from Lucy Webb Hayes along with various other accounts in diaries, memoirs, and newspapers, seeks to dispel these false images. It reveals Lucy Hayes as she really was--an intelligent, warm-hearted, very human woman--influential and also influenced by her associates; and because of her husband's position, able to extend her influence beyond personal family and friends. Lucy Hayes served as First Lady during an important transitional era in nineteenth-century American history.
Kenneth E. Davison in The Presidency of Rutherford B. Hayes, states that "the period from Hayes' nomination and election through his presidency and retirement coincided with the birth of a new age: the modern economic and social world.
Davison and other historians of the Gilded Age cite numerous changes that occurred during this era in American economic, social and intellectual life. Major economic trends of the s included the rise of national businesses, shifts in centers of agriculture, and the development of a favorable balance of trade for the United States. The accelerated movement of people from rural to urban areas also brought about great alterations in social life. Meanwhile, American artists and writers gained greater recognition for their accomplishments; developments in professional and graduate study, and the formation of new learned societies constituted significant milestones in American scholarship.
The Philadelphia Centennial Exposition, that so thrilled Lucy Hayes in ,2 educated its many visitors to the possibilities of favor saving inventions, and suggested ways of using new found time for educational and leisure pursuits. With urbanization and industrialization changing the needs and roles of people, particularly women, American industry and business became increasingly aware of opportunities for employing women and satisfying female customers. It is not surprising that, in this atmosphere, Lucy Hayes--the first wife of an American President to have earned a college degree, and a woman with a sincere interest in human welfare--should be hailed as a representative of the "New Woman Era.
But was Lucy Hayes a true representative of the new woman era? By what criteria should she be judged? How well did she fulfill the era's expectations? What kind of an example did she set for other women? If a married woman of the s were physically and financially able, she was counted on the serve as a hostess, to manage a household, to supervise family life, and to be a loving and supportive wife.
In addition an important government official's wife was also expected to show an interest in the poor and unfortunate, particularly those in the District of Columbia. The new woman was also supposed to be interested in politics. Exponents of education for women expected the presence in the White House of the first President's wife with a college degree to encourage female education, and temperance organizations, such as the recently formed Woman's Christian Temperance Union , fully expected Mrs.
Hayes would advocate a temperance policy in the White House. Finally, church groups also looked to Lucy Hayes for encouragement and support because of her strong religious convictions. What was the background of this woman who became First Lady in ? What forces molded her character? What indications were there that she would live up to the expectations for the new woman? James Webb. Lucy's father died of cholera when she was two years old and, quite naturally, her strongwilled grandfather, Isaac Cook, a prominent citizen of Chillicothe and vigorous advocate of temperance, exerted an influence on the character of the little girl.
When Lucy was twelve, her mother moved to Delaware so that her sons, James and Joseph, could enroll in the newly organized college department of Ohio Wesleyan. Lucy attended classes in the preparatory department and earned a few credits in the collegiate division. A term report signed by the vice-president in noted that her conduct was "unexceptionable" beyond reproach.
According to family tradition, Rutherford Hayes, while on a visit to his birthplace in Delaware, first heard the "merry peal" of Lucy's laughter, and saw the pretty fifteen year-old girl near the famous sulphur spring on the campus of Ohio Wesleyan. Webb decided her daughter was ready for college and late in the fall of , Lucy Webb, now sixteen, enrolled in the collegiate department of Wesleyan Female College in Cincinnati.
Themes written by Lucy at this time reveal as much about the climate of learning at Cincinnati Wesleyan Female College as they do of the attitude of the writer. Ideas from another theme suggest she may have been influenced by feminists of her day Margaret Fuller published her landmark book, Women in the Nineteenth Centery, in Instead of being considered the slave of man, she is considered his equal in all things, and his superior in some.
Early in January , Rutherford Hayes, who had moved to Cincinnati a few weeks earlier to begin a new law practice, came to see Lucy Webb at her school.
Thereafter his frequent appearances at the college and comments in his diary disclose a growing interest in her. Perhaps he even saw Lucy graduate in June and hears her read her commencement essay, "The Influence of Christianity on National Prosperity.
A year later Rutherford was writing in his diary, "I guess I am a great deal in love with L ucy …. Her low sweet voice…her soft rich eyes.
She sees at a glance what others study upon, but will not, perhaps study what she is unable to see at a flash. She is a genuine woman, right from instinct and impulse rather than judgment and reflection. A few weeks later, June , Rutherford Hayes and Lucy Webb became engaged and a year and a half later, on December 30, , were married at Maria Webb's home in Cincinnati.
They left that evening for Columbus where he combined appearances before the Ohio Supreme Court with a pleasant visit in the home of his sister, Fanny Platt. The years from to the beginning of the Civil War were happy ones for the growing Hayes family.
Lucy's happiness and pride in her husband's professional achievements were tempered only by the death of his beloved sister, Fanny Platt, in During frequent visits with the Platt family, Lucy Hayes had had long discussions with her sister-in-law and they attended lectures and concerts together.
The interest in woman's rights which Lucy had expressed earlier in her college theme was renewed when she hears Lucy Stone speak. Lucy wrote to her husband that she was pleasantly surprised by the logic of Miss Stone's arguments and came home "Womans Rights in some things.
She noted Miss Stone took the position that "whatever is proper for a man to do is equally right for a woman provided she has the power. Fortunately, Lucy and her husband turned from their sorrow over Fanny's death to the absorbing political drama of Lucy's latent interest in politics was stimulated by the vision of the Republican nominee for president, the glamorous John C.
Fremont, and his romantic wife, Jessie Benton, in the White House. The onset of the Civil War in marked a change from private to public life for the Hayes family.
When the first news of the firing on Ft. Sumter reached Cincinnati, Lucy was all for war. She even felt that if she had been at Ft.
Sumter with a garrison of women there might have been no surrender. At the end of the war he received the brevet rant of major-general. Hayes family letters, diaries and other contemporary accounts show the attitude of the civilian population toward the war effort, and provide superb descriptions of camp life and military campaigns. They also explain Lucy's abiding interest in veterans' welfare.
The happy months Lucy and the children spent with Rutherford Hayes in army camps along the Kanawha River in western Virginia were interrupted by the sorrow of separation and the death of their year and a half old son, Joseph, at Camp White, near Charleston.
The ordeal of South Mountain, where Hayes was painfully wounded, and the danger of the fierce campaign of in the Shanandoah Valley were other worries. Finally, Lucy and Rutherford's fifth son, George Crook, born in September , died like the other war baby, before he was two years old. Although Hayes had been elected to Congress in the fall of , he did not resign from the army until the following spring, In May , Lucy accompanied her husband to Washington where they watched the Grand Review of the Army from the congressional stand.
She thought Andrew Johnson was a "noble looking" man and was thrilled as she watched the cavalry ride past, although her sympathetic nature could not "shake off" the "sad thoughts of the thousands who would never gladden home.
The Hayes Family did not move to Washington to live, but Lucy visited her husband whenever possible. Her frequent presence in the gallery of the House to listen to congressional debates was evidence of her growing interest in politics. As he campaigned for office Lucy awaited the arrival of their sixth baby; on September 2, , the longed-for girl was born and promptly named Fanny after Rutherford's sister.
Hayes was elected governor of Ohio by the scant margin of votes. With Democratic majorities in both houses, he could not hope for passage of much controversial legislation, so he turned his attention instead to overdue reform of state institutions. In this he was aided by Lucy, who often accompanied her husband on visits to prisons, correctional institutions for boys and girls, hospitals for the mentally ill, and facilities for the deaf and dumb. Lucy found particular satisfaction in the establishment of a soldiers' orphans home.
Failing to win state support, she and her friends worked with the Grand Army of the Republic to start a home with voluntary contributions at Xenia.
Eventually in , the Home became a state institution. A deadlock in the state senate in April over the confirmation of Governor Hayes' nominees for the Board of Managers nearly defeated the measure. A tri-lingual filibuster and locked doors, however, kept the senate in session until a supporter of the bill arrived to break the tie. Throughout the controversy, Lucy exerted pressure on her friends, especially in the senate, to have the Home approved.
While Lucy found state politics interesting, home affairs occupied much of her time. There were many friends and political visitors to be lodged and entertained in the houses they rented, first on East State Street across from the Capitol, and then on Seventh Street.
In February , a "healthy, good-natured" baby boy, Scott Russell, was added to the family. Rutherford Hayes chose not to run for a third term as governor in By the spring of , the family had moved to Fremont into the home at Spiegel Grove which Rutherford's uncle, Sardis Birchard, had built with them in mind.
There, on August 1, , just before her forty-second birthday, Lucy gave birth to her eighth and last baby. Like his two brothers of the war years, however, little Manning Force did not survive his second summer.
Although pleased with their life in Fremont, Hayes yielded in to the pleas of Republican party leaders to run for an unprecedented third term as governor. His election over a strong opponent automatically meant he would be considered for the presidency in Lucy assured her husband that she had not been bitten by the "mania" but she was "so happy, so proud" to be his wife.
While serving his third term as governor, Hayes was dramatically nominated for President by the Republican convention at Cincinnati in June The campaign was very different from others he had participated in because custom decreed that a presidential nominee might allow others to do the talking for him. Also, for the first time since Hayes entered politics, Lucy became a prime subject of newspaper stories.
A correspondent for the New York Herald wrote, "Mrs. Hayes is said to be a student of politics, and to talk intelligently upon their changing phases.
Hayes, c. Her husband said that she "hated" formal state dinners and that she felt comfortable at informal gatherings. Maybe you mean Lemonade Lucy? When children were banned from rolling eggs on the Capitol grounds, she invited them to use the White House lawn on the Monday after Easter. Which presidents wife was called "Lemonade Lucy"? This was the first documented instance of a First Lady following a public schedule independent of the President. All Rights Reserved.
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Tales of the Living and the Dead at Pennsylvania. Lucy Webb Hayes was born and raised in Ohio. She lost her father when she was only two years old. Her grandfather, Isaac Cook, became a major influence in her life after the death of her father. Lucy was also unusually well-educated for a young woman in the mid-nineteenth century, graduating from the Wesleyan Female College in Cincinnati at the age of Hayes, an up-and-coming young lawyer from Cincinnati.
During the first major social event of the Hayes administration, a dinner in honor of the Grand Duke Alexis of Russia, the wine flowed as it always had. Hayes was uncomfortable continuing to serve alcohol, and while the president did not mind an occasional drink, he saw political possibilities in solidifying the support of temperance advocates.
They declared that from then on, no alcohol of any kind would be served in the White House. Hayes said. What I wish for my own sons I must do for the sons of other mothers. Hayes, and embraced her as a figurehead for their cause. Temperance organizations were not just social groups that opposed drinking.
Many temperance groups also advocated for other social causes by linking them to the evils of alcohol. They wanted easier access to divorce in order to leave those drunken husbands, especially if alcohol led them to be abusive.
Eventually, they decided that the best way to achieve these aims would be through the vote. Of course, not everyone responded to the ban so positively.
Politicians and reporters, accustomed to the availability of alcohol at White House functions, complained bitterly. He either slipped glasses to guests without letting the first lady know what was inside or froze it and hid the cubes in the oranges that were provided for dessert. This lithograph is part of a pro-temperance series illustrating the evils of drinking. While on a trip to Philadelphia with her husband in , she supposedly failed to protest against the claret punch that was served.
It is a mistake to think that I should want to be so dictatorial. The incident, and Mrs. They repudiated the Mrs. By the time the Hayes family was getting ready to leave the White House, the WCTU had taken up a subscription from its members and other supporters to commission a portrait of Mrs.
Hayes became the first presidential wife to have her portrait painted for the White House collection, a practice that continues to this day. This tribute was particularly fitting because President and Mrs. Hayes had initiated the project of hanging portraits of every past president in the White House, commissioning several to fill in the gaps. Hayes solidified the decision to add portraits of first ladies to this plan.
Her temperance views shaped the White House landscape in other, less-expected ways as well. Traditionally, after a formal dinner, the president and first lady and their guests would retire for coffee and liqueurs. As an alcohol-free alternative, the Hayses instituted an evening promenade through the White House Conservatory , which helped to increase the prominence of that space. Hayes wanted to decorate her dessert plates with images of ferns from the conservatory, to tie the final course with the promenade that would follow it.
At the suggestion of Theodore Davis, a newspaper artist, she expanded this idea to create a full dinner service decorated with plants and animals, designed by Davis. Hayes did accompany her husband on visits to prisons, industrial schools, and hospitals for the mentally ill, which were significant steps toward the social activism that many modern first ladies employ today. China from the state dinner service designed for President Rutherford B.
Hayes and his wife Lucy. Next White House Women. While there has yet to be a female president, women have played an integral role in shaping the White House There was no inaugural ball in When Rutherford B. Hayes and his wife left Ohio for Washington, the outcome of Hayes brought to the Executive Mansion President Rutherford B.
Hayes announced when he was elected that he would serve for one term only; this he did, William Wilson Corcoran—banker, philanthropist, and patron of the arts—resided in picturesque splendor on the northwest corner of Lafayette Park Artists often use studies or sketches to develop their final compositions, and this is especially true of portrait painters. The State Dining Room, which now seats as many as guests, was originally much smaller and served at various times Search WHHA - start typing and then listen for common searches like yours.
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The Corcoran Mansion William Wilson Corcoran—banker, philanthropist, and patron of the arts—resided in picturesque splendor on the northwest corner of Lafayette Park Artists' Life Studies for White House Portraits Artists often use studies or sketches to develop their final compositions, and this is especially true of portrait painters.
State Dining Room The State Dining Room, which now seats as many as guests, was originally much smaller and served at various times How many weddings have been held at the White House?