Error: This is required. Error: Not a valid value. Groin irritation can also be due to a build up of sweat from not washing and drying your groin properly, or from over-washing or scrubbing the area. In addition to the causes listed above irritation may also be a result of an infection, such as thrush or genital herpes. Infection is particularly likely if an unusual vaginal discharge is also present.
Intrapartum vaginal antiseptic lavage can be highly beneficial, but Vagginal is a completely different irrigation event than repetitive vaginal douching. With a review of Vaginal flushing causes of spontaneous pneumoperitoneum. Dr Sindisiwe van Zyl. National Center for Biotechnology InformationU. Vaginal douching is the process of intravaginal cleansing with a liquid solution.
Drop seat underwear pattern. Vaginal secretions or discharge
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Vaginal douching is the process of intravaginal cleansing with a liquid solution. Douching is used for personal hygiene or aesthetic reasons, for preventing or treating an infection 1 , to cleanse after menstruation or sex, and to prevent pregnancy 2. For at least years, there have been conflicting views on the benefits or harm in douching. Although there is a broad consensus that douching should be avoided during pregnancy, there is less agreement regarding douching for hygiene and relief of vaginitis symptoms.
Two earlier reviews of douching data in women 3 and adolescents 4 have concluded that douching is harmful and should be discouraged because of its association with pelvic inflammatory disease, ectopic pregnancy, and perhaps other conditions. Nonetheless, douching continues to be a common practice. We seek to review the evidence of the impact of douching on women's health. Only English-language articles were included, as were a few relevant articles published before Douching products table 1 , methods, frequency, motivation, and timing can vary considerably among women who douche.
The prevalence of douching has decreased since , but it is still a common practice among American women, especially adolescents, African-American women, and Hispanic women table 2 1 , 5. A dose-response relation between douching and its adverse effects has been found by some, highlighting the importance of assessing douching frequency in any related research 10 - The intensity and method of douching, especially douching with pressure, have been associated with adverse outcomes The timing of douching may impact on adverse sequelae, such as the temporal use of douching in relation to sexual activity, pregnancy, symptoms, and the menstrual cycle 4 , 11 , 16 , Therefore, the risk of ascending infection from the pressure of douching may be greatest around the time of ovulation when the cervical os is gaping and the mucus is thin 3.
Women who douche consider it to be a healthy practice and often state that hygiene is their primary reason for douching 2 , 6 , 8 , 15 , Motives for douching are many: to cleanse the vagina after menses or before or after sexual intercourse, to prevent or ameliorate an odor, to prevent or treat vaginal symptoms such as itching and discharge, and, less commonly, to prevent pregnancy or sexually transmitted diseases 2.
Outside influences such as physicians, mothers, girlfriends, boyfriends, and the media affect a woman's decision to douche The motivation for douching is a complicated issue imbued with both psychologic and social features that need to be addressed if vaginal douching behavior is likely to be modified on any large scale.
Douching has been associated with many adverse outcomes including pelvic inflammatory disease, bacterial vaginosis, cervical cancer, low birth weight, preterm birth, human immunodeficiency virus transmission, sexually transmitted diseases, ectopic pregnancy, recurrent vulvovaginal candidiasis, and infertility.
Studies conflict, however, and the strength of association varies enormously between studies. Many potentially confounding factors blur the epidemiologic assessment of the consequences of douching. Independently of race, associations between douching and poverty, less than a high school education, a history of pelvic inflammatory disease, and having between two and nine lifetime sexual partners are reported 1.
A lower educational level, many sexual partners, and poverty are also risk factors for sexually transmitted diseases and bacterial vaginosis, making it especially complicated to assess causality since women might douche secondary to infection-related symptoms rather than for routine purposes.
Whether complications like pelvic inflammatory disease might have occurred even without douching can be answered with prospective studies 1 , 23 , There are several ways by which douching may contribute to disease.
Douching may remove normal vaginal flora, permitting the overgrowth of pathogens. It may also provide a pressurized fluid vehicle for pathogen transport, helping lower genital tract infections ascend above the cervix into the uterus, fallopian tubes, or abdominal cavity 3 , These microbiologic and physical mechanisms may work in concert. Ness et al. Pathogenic bacteria may then ascend into the upper reproductive tract, leading to inflammatory scarring endometritis, salpingitis, or peritonitis , the principal cause of ectopic pregnancy, early miscarriage, and infertility Physiologic risk for sexually transmitted diseases is greater among adolescent women, since they typically have ectopic columnar epithelial cells in the exocervix with a large transformation zone that is vulnerable to bacterial and viral sexually transmitted infections A healthy menarcheal vaginal environment is composed primarily of lactobacilli Hydrogen peroxide H 2 O 2 -producing lactobacilli may protect the vagina against the overgrowth of potentially pathogenic indigenous flora and exogenous pathogens.
Selected human strains of lactobacilli produce lactic acid that helps keep the vaginal pH low, usually less than 4. In addition to H 2 O 2 production, lactobacilli adhere to epithelial cells, block pathogen adhesion, and stimulate the mucosal immune system Newton et al. Different types of douching liquids have various antimicrobial effects. Pavlova and Tao 30 used in vitro studies to show that four antiseptic douches were inhibitory against all vaginal microorganisms, including lactobacilli. Three vinegar-containing douches selectively inhibited vaginal pathogens associated with bacterial vaginosis, group B streptococcal vaginitis, and candidiasis, but not lactobacilli, suggesting to the investigators that vinegar 5 percent acetic acid douches may be less harmful or may be beneficial.
Juliano et al. Thus, some douche preparations may cause substantial changes in vaginal flora. Onderdonk et al. However, when they used povidone-iodine, a bactericidal agent, it caused a significant reduction in total bacterial counts that suggested an antiseptic effect in addition to the washing effect. They concluded that, in some individuals, douching may decrease the vaginal bacteria that are present, allowing a rapid proliferation of potential pathogens, increasing the risk of associated infections.
In contrast, Monif et al. They also found that lactobacilli were the first bacteria to recover. As a consequence, Monif 34 has argued for the potential benefits of douching. However, these experiments do not reflect that some women may participate in a behavior that alters the vaginal ecology before it has a chance to return to normal, such as repeated douching or vaginal or receptive vaginal, oral, or anal sex.
The weight of the epidemiologic evidence suggests that repeated douching with its attendant washing and antibacterial effects will diminish lactobacilli predominance and risk reproductive tract infections. Bacterial vaginosis is a common cause of malodorous vaginal discharge in women In women with bacterial vaginosis, lactobacilli, especially H 2 O 2 -producing lactobacilli, are greatly decreased and the vagina becomes overgrown with anaerobic and facultatively anaerobic bacteria that are often present in small numbers in the normal vagina.
These include G. Bacterial vaginosis has been reported to be twice as common among African-American and Afro-Caribbean women than among White women 35 , 41 - Vaginal douching is also twice as common among African-American women. It has been proposed that bacterial vaginosis is sometimes sexually transmitted; however, no male factor has been identified, and bacterial vaginosis can occur in adolescent women who have never had sexual intercourse Bacterial vaginosis is common, and many factors reminiscent of sexually transmitted disease risk are associated with bacterial vaginosis.
Schwebke et al. Day-to-day variability was defined as less than 85 percent of a given woman's normal vaginal flora, which was calculated on data from self-obtained vaginal smears from each woman.
Many of these factors are also associated epidemiologically with bacterial vaginosis and sexually transmitted diseases. Bacterial vaginosis has been linked with several adverse reproductive outcomes, including endometritis 48 - 51 , spontaneous preterm delivery 52 - 61 , preterm delivery of low birth weight infants 62 , low birth weight 13 , premature rupture of the membranes 52 , 55 , histologic chorioamnionitis 63 , and infection of amniotic fluid 64 - In a randomized clinical trial, Hauth et al.
Antepartum metronidazole and erythromycin lowered the frequency of prematurity. However, two other studies found that vaginal clindamycin for treatment of bacterial vaginosis did not decrease the rate of preterm deliveries 68 , The frequency of vaginal douching was shown by Fiscella et al. Meis et al. This association is strongest for early preterm birth and may be mediated by subclinical chorioamnionitis Douching is associated with bacterial vaginosis, although the direction of causation is uncertain: Does douching predispose to bacterial vaginosis, or do women douche in response to bacterial vaginosis symptoms?
In a cross-sectional study, Holzman et al. Fonck et al. In an important recent prospective cohort study, Royce et al. Rajamanoharan et al. After controlling for genital hygiene behaviors such as douching and vulval antiseptics and history of previous bacterial vaginosis episodes, they found that there were no ethnic differences between women with bacterial vaginosis and women without bacterial vaginosis.
Hawes et al. They also reported that acquisition of bacterial vaginosis was associated with having a new sexual partner and douching for hygiene. Stevens-Simon et al. Given the frequency of bacterial vaginosis among American women and its associations with adverse reproductive outcomes, the largest attributable risk for which douching may be responsible may be increased bacterial vaginosis frequency.
However, the temporal relation has not been well established given the paucity of large, prospective studies. Many sexually transmitted diseases are asymptomatic and therefore go undiagnosed, particularly in women. Two bacterial sexually transmitted diseases, gonorrhea and chlamydia, are especially important causes of pelvic inflammatory disease.
Chlamydia has been associated with tubal infertility due to fallopian tube scarring and obstruction 76 - 80 , ectopic pregnancy 81 , and pelvic inflammatory disease In addition, both chlamydia and gonorrhea have been reported to facilitate human immunodeficiency virus transmission Several studies have found an association between douching and chlamydial infection 9 , 14 , 25 , 83 - However, cross-sectional studies cannot determine reliably whether the douching preceded the disease or if the symptoms led to the douching.
Scholes et al. Peters et al. Beck-Sague et al. Stergachis et al. Other studies have examined sexually transmitted diseases in general. Foch et al. Joesoef et al. Critchlow et al. Douching and sexual activity both may accelerate squamous metaplasia and cervical maturation 91 , Cervical ectopy is common in adolescents and has been associated with increased risk of sexually transmitted disease acquisition, suggesting the importance of measuring all these factors together in studies of douching and health risk 87 , 88 , Jacobson et al.
If women who douche have less ectopy, they might eventually have a theoretically lower chance to acquire sexually transmitted diseases, although there are no data that suggest this.
In contrast to the above studies, Fonck et al. Similarly, Moscicki et al. Given the severity of the reproductive consequences of gonorrhea and chlamydia, the associations with douching are worrisome, particularly for chlamydia. As with bacterial vaginosis, the temporal relation is clouded by the paucity of prospective data, hindering clarification of whether douching is a cause or a consequence.
Keep a mature mind when following the above steps. Warnings If you do contract an STD, deal with it as soon as possible. Search U of M Web sites. Jade eggs, vaginal cones, ben wa balls and vaginal barbells are also implements designed to exercise the vagina through "weight-lifting" techniques. After sedation and anesthetization, the perineal area is antiseptically cleaned prior to the procedure. You can also prevent these conditions by not wearing underwear.
Vaginal flushing. Jump to Section
Extreme emotions can trigger redness in the face or red face. For example, if you become deeply embarrassed or anxious, your face or neck may appear splotchy. Experiencing feelings of extreme anger, stress, or sadness may also cause skin flushing. Crying can often cause red blotches on the face and neck. All of these emotions can also coincide with an acute increase in blood pressure.
Still, high blood pressure itself is not a cause of flushing, according to the American Heart Association. Rosacea is a skin condition that may produce swelling, redness, and acne-like sores. While the cause of rosacea is unknown, inflammation of the blood vessels from stress, spicy foods, and hot temperatures may worsen the condition.
Fifth disease is caused by a virus and can result in a red rash on the cheeks, arms, and legs. It may mean that you have an underlying medical condition causing this sudden redness. Home health options include avoiding specific triggers, such as spicy foods, hot beverages, toxins, bright sunlight, and extreme cold or heat. Removing yourself from high-stress situations may also help prevent flushing. Flushing does not commonly result in serious medical problems.
However, in some instances, a serious condition can be the underlying cause of flushing. Also, pinpointing your triggers can help prevent bouts of flushing. There is no definitive method for preventing flushing. However, there are some things you can do to reduce the risk of these episodes:. Helpful coping skills include relaxation techniques and cognitive behavioral skills. Also, hypnosis may be effective in treating some emotional issues that produce flushing. Taking preventive steps to address your flushing can be very helpful in reducing your symptoms.
You should also see your healthcare provider for recurring episodes, since flushing can be linked to serious medical conditions. Talk to your healthcare provider if your flushing becomes a persistent issue or if it occurs with other symptoms, such as diarrhea. Your healthcare provider will likely want to take an inventory of your symptoms to determine the underlying cause of your flushing.
They may ask you about the frequency, duration, location, and context of your symptoms. A medical exam and history will help supply required information for your healthcare provider to make a diagnosis. Be sure to mention other co-occurring symptoms, such as diarrhea, shallow breathing, or hives, so that your provider may evaluate them.
If your provider finds your symptoms are emotionally based, they may refer you to a psychotherapist. These professionals can teach you skills to help you cope with extreme emotional events and prevent flushing. Red skin syndrome RSS is caused by long-term or excessive use of topical steroid drugs. Are you at risk? Beard itching can be mild, and sometimes you'll barely notice it. Other times, every inch seems to itch.
We'll tell you what causes this and how to…. Red ears can be caused by many different conditions, but they're often harmless. Learn about potential causes and treatments of red ears. Hypohidrosis is a condition in which you aren't able to sweat normally. Learn about the causes, symptoms, and treatments of hypohidrosis. Skin inflammation occurs when your skin reacts to something you have ingested or that has touched your skin.
Treatment will depend on what is causing…. Clobetasol cream is a prescription medication. A bovine insemination pipette may be used for this procedure. A laparotomy, midline abdominal incision, may be made to aid in the procedure and locate the uterus and cervix and ensure location of the pipette or catheter for flushing procedure.
Other solutions such as povidone-iodine an antibacterial cleanser or Betadine saline may be used. Fluid is infused into the uterus carefully so as not to cause undue pressure on the fallopian tubes, which could cause infection solution to enter the bloodstream.
Access to the uterus through a laparoscopy will allow the veterinary surgeon to manipulate your dog's uterus as required to ensure adequate placement of flushing device and that flushing material is infused throughout the uterus, including the uterine horns, by gentle manipulation of the uterus during the procedure.
The uterus can be massaged this way to mix exudate with the flushing materials. Uterine flushing material and infected materials are then aspirated out of the uterus with a syringe attached to the inserted catheter or pipette.
The process of introducing flushing material, manipulating uterus and aspirating contents is repeated as necessary to remove all infected material and exudate. The pipette is then removed from the vagina and the vagina irrigated to flush any infected uterine content out The surgical incision for the laparoscopy, if performed, will be closed. Supportive care will be provided as needed during recovery from anesthesia.
Intravenous fluids and antibiotic to address pyometra are provided. Treatment of uterine infection requires the removal of retained tissues and bacteria in the uterus by flushing for successful treatment.
Antibiotics alone will not resolve the condition. Success of treatment and recovery depends on prompt treatment to address uterine infection. Intravenous fluids and antibiotics will be administered for 24 hours post surgery and antibiotics may be given for several days afterward. Vaginal discharge should be monitored for signs that infection is dissipating.
If infection remains, or worsens, further procedures may be required. Vaginal discharge should cease within 10 to 14 days. Any sutures from laparoscopy may need to be removed 10 to 14 days post-procedure.
Observe your dog for any signs of hemorrhaging or increased illness and seek veterinary attention immediately should these occur. The cost of uterine flushing will depend on the extent of illness in your dog, and whether a laparoscopy is performed in conjunction with the insertion of a pipette for flushing. Medications and antibiotics used to address systemic and uterine infections may incur additional costs.
Care must be taken not to injure or penetrate the uterine wall or other abdominal structures while placing and handling the pipette inserted through the vagina. Care not to use too much pressure and force infected solutions through the fallopian tubes into the abdominal cavity, thereby spreading infection, needs to be taken. A veterinarian with extensive experience treating breeding animals may be better able to ensure precautions are taken with the procedure to prevent injury to the reproductive system and spread of infection to other organ systems.
Spaying of female dogs prevents problems associated with retained uterine tissues and uterine infections. Careful observation and veterinary treatment for female dogs undergoing heat cycles, breeding, and parturition to resolve any uterine disorders immediately mitigates widespread infection, resulting in complicated uterine flushing procedures with extensive bacteria and infected tissues present.
Dog Walking. Dog Sitting. Dog Boarding. Uterine Flushing in Dogs Book in. First Walk is on Us! What is Uterine Flushing?
Vaginal Douching: Evidence for Risks or Benefits to Women's Health
Have a health question? Ah, the perennial vaginal health question. To answer it, we chatted with Mary Jane Minkin, M. Quick reminder: As part of your internal genitalia, your vagina is that muscular tube on the inside of your body. Streicher says. You know how self-cleaning ovens have their own magical way of keeping themselves pretty pristine? So does your vagina, which cleans itself by regularly expelling the mix of fluid and cells you probably know as discharge, according to the Mayo Clinic.
Minkin says. In fact, it can actually screw things up in there. Minkin recommends using the mildest soap you can find without any dyes or fragrance that could upset your skin. If it causes any vulvar burning or inflammation when you use it, stop using it and switch to water to see if that helps, Dr.
Instead of trying to scrub away the smell and your worries , see your doctor to get to the bottom of it. Sign up for our Newsletter and join us on the path to wellness.
All your vagina really wants is for you to let it do its self-cleaning thing. Keywords vaginal health , yeast infections , sexually transmitted infections. Trending 1. Wellness, Meet Inbox Sign up for our Newsletter and join us on the path to wellness.