Nurse educators as advanced practice nurses-Comparison of the Role of Nurse Educator Versus a Nurse Practitioner |

Nurse educators combine specialized nursing expertise with a passion for teaching. Drawing on years of clinical experience, nurse educators bring their particularized knowledge and enthusiasm into the classroom to train and prepare the current generation of nurses and generations of nurses to come. Whether it is teaching an aspiring nurse a new skill or offering continued education to seasoned nurses, the nurse educator is vital to the nursing community at large. Choosing a career in nurse education means cultivating and nurturing your own skills so that you may one day be well enough versed and properly credentialed to assume the nurse educator role and pass on your knowledge and skills to colleagues and pupils alike. Despite transitioning to a pedagogical role, many nurse educators continue to treat patients throughout their career.

Nurse educators as advanced practice nurses

Nurse educators as advanced practice nurses

Nurse educators as advanced practice nurses

Nurse educators as advanced practice nurses

Nurse educators as advanced practice nurses

This paper has identified challenges that specifically hinder the clinical education of APRNs and proposed strategies and solutions to help educational institutions address them. While mistrust by physicians of the APRN role threatens to constrain the development of collaborative educational models, the promise of interprofessional education also has the potential to unite APRN and physician practice. Finally, funding must be made available to support the vision that advanced practice nurses will assume a large measure of responsibility for the success of healthcare reform in the United States. Author information Article notes Copyright and License information Disclaimer. The U. External Strategies Not all responsibility for enhancing advanced practice nursing lies with classroom or faculty-driven learning activities. Journal of Nurse educators as advanced practice nurses American College of Surgeons.

Football nude player. What is a Nurse Educator?

Other benefits of careers in nursing education include access to cutting-edge knowledge and research, opportunities to collaborate with health professionals, an intellectually stimulating workplace and flexible work scheduling. I voted "no" before Nuse saw llg's excellent posts -- because the four present "advanced practice" roles are all advanced clinical practice the "clinical" has always been, at least, implied in the termand I don't see education Nurse educators as advanced practice nurses clinical practice. Nurses at this level serve as a source of knowledge and inspiration for other nurses, and may have teaching roles both within the settings in which they work and in the Nurse educators as advanced practice nurses industry. They are responsible for designing, implementing, evaluating, and revising educational programs advanded nurses. Simplifying the provider landscape would benefit the patient and practitioner alike. They also need to have a substantive knowledge base in their area s of instruction and have the skills to convey that knowledge in a variety of ways to those who are less expert. Apply to scholarships and adbanced, which are free; then move to federal loans, pracyice have aevanced repayment terms; then private loans, which are usually the worst deal. However, I DO support the recognition of nursing education as a specialty -- one with several distinct subspecialties. Certainly without such an exam, the nurse educator role meets the criteria of other accepted APN roles as has been discussed, but testing will provide the needed data to continue to justify and promote Rebecca uk pornstar role, leading to increased acceptance and potential financial consideration. She is a Professor in a large baccalaureate nursing program in North Carolina. The environment of acceptance for Nursrs roles continues to evolve, not only in the larger healthcare environment, but also within nursing itself. The changing health care delivery system has increased the demand for advanced practice nursing APN roles.

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  • The changing health care delivery system has increased the demand for advanced practice nursing APN roles.
  • Nurse educators are registered nurses RNs who have obtained advanced nursing degrees that allow them to teach nursing curriculum at colleges and universities, teaching and helping to train the future nurses of the world.
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This paper describes specific challenges and provides strategies to improve advanced practice nursing clinical education in order to ensure that a sufficient number of APRNs are available to work in educational, practice, and research settings. Best practices are identified through a review of classic and current nursing literature. Strategies include intensive interprofessional collaborations and radical curriculum revisions such as increased use of simulation and domestic and international service work.

Nurse educators must work with all stakeholders to create effective and lasting change. National and international reports, including one published recently by the Institute of Medicine [ 1 ], describe the potential for advanced practice registered nurses APRNs to contribute to the provision of high-quality healthcare as part of comprehensive healthcare reform [ 2 , 3 ]. Preparing APRNs for practice and fostering the role of APRNs in a variety of educational, clinical, and research settings are necessary steps toward achieving this vision.

Given the current economic and political climate in the United States, however, success may be elusive. At present, a shrinking number of nurse educators carry an increasingly large responsibility for educating a declining number of APRNs [ 4 , 5 ]. In many settings, outdated regulations, policies, and biases prevent APRNs from practicing to the fullest extent of their education, skills, and competencies [ 6 — 8 ].

Some US-based physician organizations have mounted campaigns aimed at discrediting APRN education and practice and decrying the potential of APRNs to provide cost-effective and clinically efficient care [ 9 , 10 ]. While barriers to practice are significant, innovative approaches to clinical education and curricular transformation offer promise to nursing administrators, nursing educators, and practicing APRNs who are committed to preparing a highly qualified APRN workforce that will serve future generations of Americans.

The rapid development and establishment of the practice doctorate has generated cautious enthusiasm among many nurse educators who are eager to help APRNs achieve their fullest potential in clinical practice. The purpose of this paper is to describe challenges in providing APRN clinical education and to propose achievable strategies for educating future APRNs to participate fully in transforming the United States healthcare system. While the IOM report is extraordinarily thorough, its scope does not include suggestions for specific strategies for improving APRN clinical education, a gap this paper seeks to fill.

APRNs represent an underutilized source of quality health care providers [ 1 ]. Only 3. While the nurse anesthetist was the first advanced practice role to emerge in the late 19th century, formal APRNs education programs did not start until the 20th century.

The first nurse-midwifery program began in at the Maternity Care Association in New York, and in , Rutgers University offered the first CNS graduate program with a specialty in psychiatric and mental health. The role of the nurse practitioner then developed in the s with the increase in federal funding for advanced nursing education in order to fill the need for primary care providers [ 12 ].

Since the various roles have emerged, APRNs consistently provide high-quality, cost-effective patient care in a variety of healthcare settings [ 13 ]. One hallmark of APRN practice is the provision of care directed at illness prevention, health promotion, and improved patient care outcomes [ 14 ]. APRN practice represents one aspect of the nursing profession's ongoing efforts to provide high-quality healthcare to diverse populations.

Overcoming barriers to APRN practice in today's healthcare environment will lead to improvements in health care for many, especially among traditionally underserved populations. We define many challenges associated with providing effective APRN clinical education, particularly in clinical practice settings. Our analysis of the challenges in Table 1 led us to identify innovative educational and programmatic strategies with potential to improve APRN education. The strategies we present include both internal those related to educational institutions and external those related to social, political, and interprofessional practice issues factors.

Clearly, not enough qualified nursing faculty are available to meet the nation's need for increased numbers of APRNs, and the projections describing future shortfalls are bleak [ 15 , 16 ]. Educational organizations find it increasingly difficult to attract qualified APRNs willing to serve in faculty roles. Constrained budgets result in compressed salaries throughout higher education systems, increasing the gap between salaries available in practice and those offered for teaching positions.

When APRNs do pursue education at the PhD level, they often graduate only to face the reality of the tenure process in research-driven educational institutions. Emphasis on the role of faculty in conducting research and generating research-related revenue limits the availability of PhD-prepared APRN faculty to participate in direct clinical supervision of APRN students.

One result is that the primary responsibility for APRN clinical education falls to faculty not eligible for tenure [ 18 ] and whose salaries are typically lower than those available for APRNs in clinical practice [ 19 ].

Educational institutions without established faculty practice plans face additional barriers for supporting and retaining faculty who need to practice to maintain certification and licensure, in addition to teaching and meeting tenure criteria.

As many schools of nursing transition to the Doctorate of Nursing Practice DNP , existing advanced practitioner faculty without a doctorate may find that they are underqualified [ 20 ]. Institutional requirements for supervisory committees of doctoral students may require faculty to hold equivalent doctorates, and supervision of DNP students may increase faculty workloads. PhD-prepared nursing faculty may lack the advanced practice qualifications to teach specialty content in APRN programs.

Smaller educational institutions may not have the institutional structures or additional faculty necessary to support the development of DNP programs [ 21 ]. It is too soon to tell whether these transitional challenges will affect the quality of APRN clinical education. The number of annual graduates from APRN programs has fallen from a peak in [ 17 ]. This decline is multifaceted, relating to a variety of barriers facing nurses who might otherwise pursue graduate education.

Admission to APRN educational programs can be difficult. Program location can be a deterrent to nurses who are place bound by responsibilities to support family and provide income.

In some areas, there are vacancies in some nursing programs, while others may turn away qualified applicants. The result is a professional nursing community that does not reflect the diversity of the US population [ 24 ]. If ADNs do pursue graduate education, time to completion of an APRN program expands, given the requirement for ADNs to complete bachelor's education before entering a graduate nursing program.

Such problems clearly bring the APRN supply needs back to nurse educators and leaders at all levels. The primary challenge facing APRN education from outside educational institutions is the limited number of available clinical sites and preceptors [ 22 ].

To increase the number of APRNs prepared to practice independently and to the fullest extent of their scope of practice, nursing education programs must increase both the number and quality of available preceptors and sites.

Since many existing faculty practice settings are inadequate to meet this need, educational institutions must rely on cooperative, volunteer community preceptors. Often, APRN specialties require that preceptors hold the same specialty certification.

While there is a great need for APRN graduates to serve rural areas, there are even fewer preceptors and role models available in these underserved locations.

The limited supply of potential preceptors and clinical sites is exacerbated by competitive forces. Medical resident preparation dominates the use of available clinical sites in hospitals. In many academic medical centers, APRNs are employed for medical student and resident education, further reducing the field of potential preceptors for APRN students [ 26 ].

Nursing educational institutions are concentrated in large urban areas near hospitals and may compete with other nursing educational institutions for clinical sites and preceptors. State regulations and specialty certification agencies place additional requirements on educational institutions that further limit the capacity to prepare APRN students.

Direct supervision of students limits the number of students individual preceptors may have at any given time. The requirement for low student-faculty ratios in clinical courses makes APRN education expensive. This increase in DNP student practice hours will increase the need for qualified and willing preceptors.

The limited availability of national funding poses a significant external challenge to successful APRN education. Increasing the capacity of educational institutions to educate APRNs requires additional funding.

The current prioritization for medical education and residency training through federal support makes increasing funding for nursing education difficult. In many research organizations, nursing faculty pursuing academic careers and tenure are discouraged from pursuing clinical education research as a funded line of inquiry.

Among potential APRN preceptors, there may be a lack of willingness to precept APRN students due to a lack of incentives beyond the ideals of serving the profession.

Potential preceptors may see the challenges to practitioner productivity or the additional time commitments of being a preceptor as disincentives to assuming the role. The lack of formal preparation and support for the teaching role may further discourage APRNs from being a preceptor. While direct or graduate entry training is increasingly used as a mechanism for increasing the supply of APRN graduates, potential preceptors may be resistant to training students with little or no health care experience.

The final challenge to increasing the preparation of APRNs is closely tied to the profession's relationship with the citizens who are served.

In addition to the chronic underrepresentation of men, diverse populations, and rural inhabitants in the nursing workforce, advanced practice nursing continues to contend with an identity crisis among the US population as a whole, who suffer from a knowledge deficit regarding the skills and abilities of APRNs. Historically, nurses work at the direction of physicians, and cultural and occupational patterns that reinforce this dependent relationship are slow to change.

While it is not clear the American Medical Association's efforts to counter the IOM's Future of Nursing Report will be entirely successful [ 28 ], the lack of support for full-scope APRN practice from this influential organization is disappointing to those with a vision for the provision of collaborative care in an efficient and effective interprofessional model. Negotiating a new position in health care for nurses and APRNs will continue to be complicated by gender politics as well as power positioning.

Significant innovation and change are needed to accomplish this vision and to increase the number of APRN graduates. While some of what is required must be implemented on a nation-wide scale, there is strong potential for nursing education programs to implement local and regional strategies that will increase the numbers of APRN graduates prepared to practice at the fullest extent of their education and licensure.

In preparing this discussion of strategies and solutions described in Table 2 , we considered our own experience as educators in graduate nursing programs and explored recommendations from multiple authors describing approaches that have been successful in enhancing the education of APRNs.

Taken individually, each of these strategies has the potential to help programs make incremental improvements in the recruitment, retention, and preparation of graduate nursing students. In combination, these strategies offer the promise of helping nursing education affect transformation in the preparation and practice of APRNs.

For the purposes of this paper, internal strategies are those that can be undertaken within nursing education programs and the universities that house them, while external are those that reflect some level of engagement with other organizations including other nursing education programs and healthcare organizations. Like prelicensure nursing education, advanced practice nursing education is resource intensive, requiring sophisticated laboratory settings, computer equipment, and high faculty-to-student ratios.

The American Association of Colleges of Nursing [ 16 ] and the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation [ 29 ] recommend that educational organizations work with one another as well as with hospitals and healthcare organizations to develop innovative capacity expanding approaches for preparing nurses and nurse educators and to foster the expansion of nursing education programs.

These programs are likely to be costly, but if the benefits can be well-described, educational institutions, hospitals, and healthcare organizations may be willing to invest in their success. As one example of innovative collaboration between university programs, Siewert and her colleagues from the University of Iowa College of Nursing report on collaborative efforts with the University of Missouri at Kansas City that allows for dual enrollment of neonatal nurse practitioner students and helps to optimize faculty resources and enhance student learning opportunities at both institutions [ 30 ].

An innovative array of academic and service partnerships linking Bassett Medical Center in Cooperstown, New York, with educational programs at the State University of New York Institute for Technology in Utica, New York now offers tuition support for advanced practice nursing preparation with an emphasis on improving care in a large rural community [ 31 ].

Nursing programs have traditionally been content driven, but the needs of students and faculty are changing along with those of the workplace [ 1 ].

At the core of these new and revised curricula is an emphasis on integrating established educational and professional competencies with educational strategies that encourage problem solving and that enhance students' critical thinking abilities.

Such curricula will encourage the simultaneous development of innovative learning activities, ensure effective student evaluations, and provide clinical experiences that emphasize the optimization of student practice outcomes [ 33 ]. Problem-based learning can be integrated within a competency-based framework or as a stand-alone strategy to enhance the development of critical thinking and hypothesis-testing skills [ 36 , 37 ].

Problem-based learning also known by other terms with slightly different applications, including case-, practice-, or concept-based learning helps students ground learning in relevant clinical experiences [ 38 , 39 ].

As students engage closely with faculty in exploring new concepts and identifying new solutions, the process of discovery can lead to the development of improved clinical judgment [ 40 ]. The use of simulation in nursing education is becoming increasingly popular for its ability to enhance the critical thinking of advanced practice nursing students and because it provides a useful evaluative tool for faculty [ 41 ].

Through the use of high-fidelity computerized simulation models, APRN students safely develop new knowledge and skills about high-risk, low-volume practices [ 42 ]. Other simulation activities involving scripted patients or rotation through skill-based practice stations in laboratory settings also offer enhanced opportunity for student learning and faculty participation. Clinical simulation activities can add greater value by linking APRN students with medicine, pharmacy, and rehabilitation students across the health sciences [ 43 ].

Interprofessional education offers the potential to enhance efficiency in the provision of clinical education for all students [ 44 ] and fosters collaborative practice beyond the educational period. Success has been demonstrated when APRN education has been integrated with specialty and generalist physician practice in a mental health practice setting, as described by Roberts and her colleagues [ 45 ] and likely has much potential to improve education and patient care in a variety of other settings.

While mistrust by physicians of the APRN role threatens to constrain the development of collaborative educational models, the promise of interprofessional education also has the potential to unite APRN and physician practice. Such efforts to integrate education and training hold much promise for the US healthcare system as a whole. Distance education helps create opportunities for otherwise place-bound nurses to pursue graduate studies to become APRNs by extending the reach of nursing education programs beyond traditional boundaries.

Improvements in online course management software and evidence-based distance teaching pedagogical approaches provide a foundation for the asynchronous delivery of high-quality and engaging course content.

References: Bryant-Lukosius, D. Hello everyone out there, i am here to give my testimony about a herbalist called dr imoloa. I believe that these things are role functions that can be performed at varying levels of sophistication by any RN. According to the American Association of College of Nursing , prospective nurse educators who seek a career at the highest level at colleges or universities should obtain some doctoral degree in nursing. There is an engagement in professional activities leading to innovation within the specialty education and nursing care clinical education. Certified Nurse Practitioners work in specialty areas. These professionals, who work in the classroom and the practice setting, are responsible for preparing and mentoring current and future generations of nurses.

Nurse educators as advanced practice nurses

Nurse educators as advanced practice nurses

Nurse educators as advanced practice nurses

Nurse educators as advanced practice nurses. Jump to Section

They are the leaders who document the outcomes of educational programs and guide students through the learning process. Nurse educators are prepared at the master's or doctoral level and practice as faculty in colleges, universities, hospital-based schools of nursing or technical schools, or as staff development educators in health care facilities.

They work with recent high school graduates studying nursing for the first time, nurses pursuing advanced degrees and practicing nurses interested in expanding their knowledge and skills related to care of individuals, families and communities. Nurse educators often express a high degree of satisfaction with their work. Other benefits of careers in nursing education include access to cutting-edge knowledge and research, opportunities to collaborate with health professionals, an intellectually stimulating workplace and flexible work scheduling.

Nursing schools nationwide are struggling to find new faculty to accommodate the rising interest in nursing among new students. A nurse educator is a registered nurse who has advanced education, including advanced clinical training in a health care specialty.

Nurse educators serve in a variety of roles that range from adjunct part-time clinical faculty to dean of a college of nursing. Nurse educators combine their clinical abilities with responsibilities related to:. Nurse educators also help students and practicing nurses identify their learning needs, strengths and limitations, and they select learning opportunities that will build on strengths and overcome limitations.

In addition to teaching, nurse educators who work in academic settings have responsibilities consistent with faculty in other disciplines, including:. A growing number of nurse educators teach part-time while working in a clinical setting. This gives them the opportunity to maintain a high degree of clinical competence while sharing their expertise with novice nurses.

Nurse educators who work in practice settings assess the abilities of nurses in practice and collaborate with them and their nurse managers to design learning experiences that will continually strengthen those abilities. In addition, nurse educators teach in areas that have evolved as "specialties" through personal experience or personal study, such as leadership or assessment.

Nurse educators need to have excellent communication skills, be creative, have a solid clinical background, be flexible and possess excellent critical thinking skills. They also need to have a substantive knowledge base in their area s of instruction and have the skills to convey that knowledge in a variety of ways to those who are less expert.

Nurse educators need to display a commitment to lifelong learning, exercise leadership and be concerned with the scholarly development of the discipline. They should have a strong knowledge base in theories of teaching, learning and evaluation; be able to design curricula and programs that reflect sound educational principles; be able to assess learner needs; be innovative; and enjoy teaching.

Those who practice in academic settings also need to be future-oriented so they can anticipate the role of the nurse in the future and adapt curriculum and teaching methods in response to innovations in nursing science and ongoing changes in the practice environment. They need advisement and counseling skills, research and other scholarly skills, and an ability to collaborate with other disciplines to plan and deliver a sound educational program.

Nurse educators who practice in clinical settings need to anticipate changes and expectations so they can design programs to prepare nurses to meet those challenges. They need to be able to plan educational programs for staff with various levels of ability, develop and manage budgets, and argue for resources and support in an environment where education is not the primary mission. While nurses who care for patients in any setting engage in patient teaching, nurse educators typically practice in the following settings:.

The benefits will not be worth the costs. I voted "no" before I saw llg's excellent posts -- because the four present "advanced practice" roles are all advanced clinical practice the "clinical" has always been, at least, implied in the term , and I don't see education as clinical practice.

I also agree with all the points llg made as usual! That is not to say that I don't support recognition of nursing education as a v. My initial reaction was to say "Yes" the nurse educator deserves to be the fifth advanced practice nursing specialty.

However, since reading some of the arguments made by other users it makes me wonder if making the nurse educator the fifth advance practice nursing specialty is such a good idea. How would this be structured? What types of nurse educators would be included under this umbrella?

What kinds of rules, regulations and additional certification would our nurse educators need to have because they would be considered advanced practice nurses? As a Staff Development educator, I would definitely say no.

There are so many types of educators. Would academic faculty be considered advanced practice versus staff development and facility based educators? Would the same standards apply to both, even though their foci are different? I would definitely support a recognized specialty for educators. I am a recent RN , and I really appreciate this info, as I am beginning to work on my BSN with plans to go into nursing education eventually. I see the points that the PP's have made.

I just finished my LPN classes, and I am planning on continuing my education. I am very seriously considering becoming a nurse educator. I live in a small city, and the program has difficulty finding instructors if someone leaves. Not only do I live in a smaller city, but it has an air force base, therefore, a lot of turnover. With the current role and identity issues associated with patient recognition of advanced practice nurses, I'm inclined to think llg's points are well founded.

Also, given that primary care providers and all those lobbying to be providers are beginning to use similar processes, I'm also inclined to think fewer specialties may be in order. The specialties for advanced care and anesthesiology should probably be the only two going forward.

The care provided by CNMs would roll up under advanced care in a similar fashion where an obstetrician is a physician and still referred to as doctor.

Simplifying the provider landscape would benefit the patient and practitioner alike. Edited Jun 24, by buransic. World Marketplace Leaders. Or sign in with one of these services Sign in with Google. Sign in with Facebook. Sign in with LinkedIn. Case Management Nurses Week Contest! Yes, but only for certain types of faculty ie. No, we are over-regulated enough already. Prev 1 2 Next. Share this post Link to post Share on other sites. Jun 18, by llg, PhD, RN. I voted "no" for a couple of reasons.

Jun 19, by elkpark. Are you a credible source? Add your Credentials, Experience, etc. I agree with llg and elkpark for same reasons they cite. Jun 20, by showbizrn. Jun 20, by 4treasures. Jun 22, by smarti Jun 24, by buransic. Open An Account To Comment.

Colleague's E-mail is Invalid. Your message has been successfully sent to your colleague. Save my selection. LeFlore, Judy L. Educational factors limit the number of advanced practice registered nurse APRN graduates to meet the growing workforce demands. Healthcare dynamics are necessitating a shift in how nursing education envisions, creates, and implements clinical learning opportunities.

The current clinical education model in APRN programs continues to be the same as it was 45 years ago when the student numbers were much smaller. Determining competency based on the number of clinical hours can be inefficient, ineffective, and costly and limits the ability to increase capacity. Little research exists in graduate nursing education to support the effectiveness and efficiency of current hours of clinical required for nurse practitioner students.

Simulation and academic-practice partnership models can offer innovative approaches to nurse practitioner education for clinical training, with the goal of producing graduates who can provide safe, quality care within the complex practice-based environment of the nation's evolving healthcare system.

Corresponding Author: Judy L. Disclosure: The authors have disclosed that they have no significant relationships with, or financial interest in, any commercial companies pertaining to this article. Submitted for publication: April 22, ; accepted for publication: May 21, The work cannot be changed in any way or used commercially. Meeting the expected increasing workforce demands for advanced practice nurses is challenging current education models and fostering innovative changes in education.

Healthcare dynamics are also driving a shift in how nursing education envisions, creates, and implements clinical learning. The current education model credits, clinical hours, and one-to-one apprenticeship in advanced practice registered nurse APRN programs is essentially unchanged from 45 years ago when student numbers were much smaller.

Realities of the healthcare delivery system have intensified the challenges of access to clinical learning opportunities for students in hospitals and community sites, regardless of the instructional model, that is, an academically based faculty instructor or preceptor apprenticeship model. The Institute of Medicine Future of Nursing report 7 challenged educators to develop competency -based approaches to nursing education to better prepare nurses to lead in an evolving healthcare environment.

Developing or expanding the use of technologies, learning activities, and projects could promote innovation in the education of APRN students. Technologies such as simulation , which includes mannequin-based simulators, screen-based simulators, and virtual patients, standardized patients, and case studies can support competency -based education and offer possible alternatives to preceptor supervised clinical practice hours.

Simulated clinical experiences could support clinical learning and shift dependency on traditional patient care clinical situations. Patient type and experience vary in traditional clinical learning situations, resulting in inconsistent experience and quality of learning. Conversely, clinically based simulated learning activities can be targeted to specific learning needs, standardized, and used as both training and assessment tools.

Given the variability in learning opportunities at a clinical site, there is no guarantee that each learner will be exposed to the specific desired clinical experiences. As a learning and assessment strategy, simulation has the ability to ensure that each student is exposed to a predetermined set of clinical encounters until a desired level of competency is demonstrated. Underpinning this assumption are the experiential learning theories developed by Rogers, Dewey, and especially Kolb, who explicated the importance of combining experience, perception, cognition, and behavior.

Mannequin-based simulators represent a well-established educational approach and provide a vital infrastructure for healthcare education. In addition, currently available mannequin-based simulators have a limited capacity to support advanced training such as that required for nurse practitioners and physicians. While these mannequins can model human cardiorespiratory physiology quite adequately, they model many aspects of human anatomy only nominally.

Also, because mannequins are unable to display attitudes or emotions, these experiences must be simulated by voice-overs from technicians or instructors. Advances in virtual environment technology are making computer screen—based simulators an attractive complement to mannequin simulator training.

Many of these screen-based virtual environment simulators can now operate within Web browsers. An example of a Web simulation program that can be used to teach procedural skills to nurse practitioner students is clinical vr mySmartHealthcare, Saratoga Springs, New York.

Shadow Health Gainesville, Florida has developed a program that provides digital clinical experiences online in which students interview and examine virtual patients as part of an advanced assessment course of study.

Virtual environment simulators can also operate without the need for an instructor to be present, allowing students to participate in training at a time and place of their choosing.

Preliminary evidence suggests that virtual reality simulators are effective training devices. Simulation can also support interprofessional education. Upon graduation, APRNs practice as members of multidisciplinary and interprofessional teams. Nursing education must evolve in the preparation of advanced practice nurses as both collaborators and leaders of multidisciplinary teams in complex healthcare delivery systems. Finding opportunities for interprofessional education can be challenging, especially for nursing education programs in universities without medical or other professional schools.

Simulation provides an ideal opportunity to develop nursing students' competence in participating as the nursing member of an interprofessional team. Advanced nursing education students and other health occupation trainees engaged in shared simulated clinical learning opportunities can develop competency in technologically supported interprofessional practice. Scenarios can be developed for a variety of patient situations that require the input of different team members, such as the discharge of an infant with multiple congenital anomalies who will require follow-up care and resources.

Expediting and optimizing the clinical learning curve to ensure both competency and quality of clinicians are a major goal of APRN curricula. Inconsistencies exist between the number of hours required by universities and certifying bodies. Nursing research into the proportion of clinical hours that could be transferred to simulated experiences without sacrificing desired student outcomes is lacking for advanced practice nursing students, 2 but a national simulation study by the National Council of State Boards of Nursing on replacing clinical hours with simulation in prelicensure nursing education concluded that up to half of traditional clinical hours could be substituted with high-quality simulation experiences and yield comparable end-of-program educational outcomes.

Academic-practice partnership models for clinical training offer additional opportunities for innovation in clinical education with the goal of providing safe, quality care within the complex practice-based healthcare environment. However, precepting places additional demands on providers' time and energy and can negatively affect productivity measures that can concern employers.

Academic-practice partnerships can facilitate the exchange of information to identify the needs of specific populations and the clinical workforce. Incorporating this information into academic curricula and clinical training would help shape the experiential training of advanced practice nurses to better prepare graduates for the specific needs of populations.

Partnerships between academic institutions and practice sites can promote APRN students' readiness to practice upon graduation by improving training and competencies for both students and preceptors.

Many challenges have been identified in this article to APRN education as it relates to the needs of the healthcare communities and some suggested resolutions have been offered. However, the solutions are quite large in scope and involve multiple players. A change of this magnitude will require the support of national leaders. Ideally, the National Council of State Boards of Nursing and other national organizations will see the need and facilitate solutions. You may be trying to access this site from a secured browser on the server.

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Abstract References. Back to Top Article Outline. American Association of Colleges of Nursing. Cited Here Re-envisioning clinical education for nurse practitioner programs: themes from a national leaders' dialogue. J Prof Nurs. Interprofessional Education Collaborative Expert Panel. Graduate Nursing Education Demonstration. Accessed May 18, Recruiting and maintaining U.

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Kolb AY, Kolb D. Learning styles and learning spaces: enhancing experiential learning in higher education. Acad Manag Learn Educ. Managing patient deterioration: a protocol for enhancing student nurses' competence through Web-based simulation and feedback techniques. BMC Nurs. PubMed CrossRef. Integration of theory and practice: experiential leaning theory and nursing education. Nurs Educ Perspect. View Full Text PubMed. The NCSBN national simulation study: a longitudinal, randomized, controlled study replacing clinical hours with simulation in prelicensure nursing education.

J Nurs Reg. Merchant DC. Does high-fidelity simulation improve clinical outcomes? J Nurses Staff Dev. Can a virtual patient trainer teach student nurses how to save lives—teaching nursing students about pediatric respiratory diseases. Family nurse practitioner clinical requirements: is the best recommendation hours?

Nurse educators as advanced practice nurses

Nurse educators as advanced practice nurses